Music has always been recognized as an important element in human societies. It is believed that it can influence attitudes, beliefs, and emotions. Aristotle, a Greek philosopher, thought that music could shape the character of a person. He also believed that works of art could contain some measure of truth.
Music has been used for many purposes, from advertising to psychotherapy. The emotional impact of a song can be strong enough to lift people’s spirits and help them find peace. Throughout history, music has been an essential adjunct to ceremonies, rituals, and musical theatre. However, in the past few centuries, there has been a conflict over what music actually is. Many definitions place music in a higher truth than what we are familiar with, while others put it explicitly within a culture.
In the nineteenth century, composers began stretching the tonal system to the outer limits of its capacity. Electronic machinery allowed composers to create works that did not require a traditional interpreter. This led to a variety of styles. One style, bebop, was a complex style of jazz from the 1950s. Another style, jazz improvisation, has been orchestrated and played by musicians.
Early forms of R&B were dominated by men with big voices. Some artists included Big Joe Turner, Little Richard, and Bo Diddley. Others include Lambert, Hendricks, and Ross. There have also been a number of singers who have recorded solos.
Some musicians who have a larger following include Pharrell Williams, Bob Dylan, and Janis Singer. They have songs that are upbeat and have been on the top charts for weeks. Other popular singers of the 30s and 40s had their own big bands.
Modern music is a bewildering mix of genres. Some compositions are scary, while others are jarring. And the language of the music is often not very clear.
As a result, it is hard to determine whether music is an art form or just a means of communication. Martin Luther, a Protestant reformer, insisted that music be accessible to the public. Also, he insisted that music be simple and direct.
In the 19th century, the English psychologist Edmund Gurney incorporated symbolist and formalist elements into his theories. However, he did not accept the esoteric vocabulary of the Schoenberg school.
The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche rejected the idea of tone painting as music. Instead, he conceived of the power of music to generate myths. Unlike the Greeks, he gave short shrift to the mathematical aspects of music.
Aristoxenus, a pupil of Aristotle, was critical of the use of mathematical considerations in music. He also denigrated acoustical factors. Nevertheless, he gave credit to the listener, and viewed music as an expression of the emotional nature of humans.
Another early philosopher, Sextus Empiricus, claimed that music was the art of tones. However, he also stated that music is not a spatialized phenomenon.
The Platonic ideal of music is an alternative to the physical view, which sees the musical tones as merely abstractions. It finds unexpected mathematical relationships in music, and is currently the least discussed ideal of music in philosophy of criticism.